Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce (UK) is a fermented sauce, made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and sea salt (US will use salt unless otherwise stated). Commonly used in Asian cuisine, and in some Western cuisine dishes, especially Worcestershire sauce or de:Maggi.
Authentic soy sauces are fermented with the mold Aspergillus oryzae, wheat, and other related microorganism to produce koji. The koji is then mixed with water and salt (approx. 17%, w/v) and is fermented for 6–12 months. The fermented product is then pressed to produce the fermented juice, shoyu.Virtually all soy sauce has some alcohol added during bottling to aid as a preservative for shipping and sale. For this reason, soy sauce should always be kept refrigerated and out of direct light, due to spoilage. Although there are many types of soy sauce, all are salty and earthy-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. Although it originated in China, it is used in various cuisines across Asia. In particular, it is an important flavoring in Japanese cuisine. However, Chinese and Japanese soy sauces are substantially different, and it is rarely appropriate to substitute one for the other.
The Chinese soy sauces are primarily made from soybean, with relatively low amounts of other grains. There are three main varieties:
--Light/fresh soy sauce - a thin, clear, light brown sauce. It is the main soy used for cooking, as its lighter color does not greatly affect the colour of the dish.
-- Dark/old soy sauce - a dark, thick soy sauce, is aged longer and added with molasses to give it its distinctive look. This variety is mainly used as a table top seasoning, but is also used in cooking. It has a richer flavour than light soy sauce, but is less salty.
--Thick soy sauce - as its name implies, in Indochina this is known as kecap.
Japanese Soy Sauce
--Koikuchi - Originating in the KantM region of Japan, its usage eventually spread all over Japan. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of "koikuchi", and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. This variety is also implied as namashMyu when it is not pasteurized.
-- Usukuchi - Particular popular in the Kansai region of Japan, it is both saltier and lighter in color than "koikuchi". The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake (a sweet liquid made from fermented rice) in its production.
--Tamari - Produced mainly in the Chkbu region of Japan, "tamari" is produced mainly from soybean, with only a small amount of wheat. Consequently, it is much darker in appearance and richer in flavour than "koikuchi". It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce, as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. Technically, this variety is known as miso-damari, as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures.
--Shiro (v}, white) - A very light colored soy sauce. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce, "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat, and very little soybean, lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. More common in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food, for example sashimi.
--Saishikomi - This variety is brewed in soy sauce instead of salt water. Consequently, it is much darker than "koikuchi", and has a much stronger and richer flavour. Historically, this type was known as kanro (u—2) as it was made for the emperor and he liked his sweet dew.
--genen- Low-salt soy sauces also exist, but is not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce, since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard process of producing soy sauce.:
--amakuchi - Commonly called "Hawaiian Soy Sauce"' in the US, is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce.:
Soy sauce contains a small amount of naturally occurring MSG. It can also be extremely salty, so it is not a suitable condiment for some people, and should generally be taken in moderation. Low-salt soy sauces are produced, but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt.
Fermented Soy Products and Their Potential Health Benefits: A Review--"...Microbial metabolism is responsible for producing the β-glucosidase enzyme that converts glycosidic isoflavones into aglycones with higher biological activity in fermented soy products, in addition to several end-metabolites associated with human health development, including peptides, phenolic acids, fatty acids, vitamins, flavonoids, minerals, and organic acids..." source